Sunday 22 November 2020

NOVATAXA: A New Genus of Neotropical Ant-like Spider


[Arachnida • 2020] Sympolymnia gen. nov. • A New Genus of Neotropical Ant-like Spider (Araneae, Salticidae, Simonellini), with Description of Two New Species and Indirect Evidence for Transformational Mimicry

Figure 8. Live habitus of Sympolymnia spp. and potential ant models. Please note the ontogenetic shift of shine and abdomen shape in the spiders.
 Sympolymnia shinahota sp. nov.: A. Juvenile female, Villa Tunari, Cochabamba Dept. (please note the shiny, pointed abdomen); B, C. Adult females, same location; D. Holotype female, Buena Vista, Santa Cruz Dept.;
 E. Pseudomyrmex ethicus, Villa Tunari, Cochabamba Dept.; 
F. Crematogaster sp., Villa Tunari, Cochabamba Dept.; 
G. Camponotus sanctaefidei, La Guardia, Santa Cruz Dept.; 
H. C. latangulus, Buena Vista, Santa Cruz Dept.

 Perger & Rubio, 2020 

Sympolymnia, a new genus of myrmecomorph jumping spider belonging to the tribe Simonellini Peckham, Peckham & Wheeler, 1889, is described. It comprises five species: the type species, Sympolymnia lucasi (Taczanowski, 1871), comb. nov.Sympolymnia lauretta (Peckham & Peckham, 1892), comb. nov.Sympolymnia edwardsi (Cutler, 1985), comb. nov. and Sympolymnia shinahota sp. nov. and S. cutleri sp. nov. Sympolymnia lauretta (Peckham & Peckham, 1892) is recorded from Bolivia for the first time. Ontogenetic shifts of ant-resemblance are observed: Juveniles of S. cutleri sp. nov. and S. lauretta mimic black ants of the genus Crematogaster Lund, 1831, but those of S. shinahota sp. nov. most closely resemble Pseudomyrmex ethicus (Forel, 1911). Adults of S. cutleri sp. nov., S. lauretta and S. shinahota sp. nov. resemble the ant Camponotus sanctaefidei Dalla Torre, 1892 and orange adults of S. shinahota sp. nov. are putative mimics of Camponotus latangulus Roger, 1863.

Key Words: Bolivia, jumping spider, mimicry complex, myrmecomorph, polymorphism, South America

Tribe Simonellini Peckham, Peckham & Wheeler, 1889

Sympolymnia gen. nov.
 Type species: Janus lucasii Taczanowski, 1871
 (by original designation)

Diagnosis: This genus can be distinguished from the other four genera of Simonellini (Cylistella Simon, 1901, Erica Peckham & Peckham, 1892, Fluda Peckham & Peckham, 1892 and Synemosyna) by the presence of two translucent white patches between the cephalic and thoracic areas (Figs 4 and 10B) and the presence of large, lung-shaped spermathecae (Fig. 6B, G). Additional characters to separate Sympolymnia gen. nov. from Erica, Fluda or Synemosyna are shown in Table 1.

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