Wednesday, 12 April 2017

How domestication can change animals' facial features




Date: April 10, 2017
Source: Universitaet Tübingen

Domesticated animals, compared to their wild counterparts, have undergone numerous changes in physiology, behavior and morphology. These changes are commonly referred to as the domestication syndrome and include behavioral changes, such as increased docility as well as genetic alterations in size, color and facial characteristics. In attempting to find whether these changes have a single cause, Russian zoologist Dmitry Belyaev conducted a series of selection experiments with silver foxes, hypothesizing that behavior, specifically tameness, was the key driving factor behind the changes brought about by domestication. After generations of selecting foxes for tameness, they were found to display phenotypes similar to those observed in domesticated species. Since then, it has been further hypothesized that selection for social tolerance and reduced aggression may also have played an important role in shaping the modern human anatomy, which is remarkable for the reduced face and gracile overall features.

In parallel to his fox experiment, Belyaev also selected rats over 64 generations for their behavior: either tameness or defensive aggression towards humans. In the first ever quantitative study on the facial anatomy of Belyaev's selected rats, an international team of researchers from the Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Paleoenvironment at the University of Tübingen and Pennsylvania State University collected 3-D measurements on the skulls of both tame- and aggressive-selected rats, in order to evaluate Belyaev's hypothesis that tame behavior correlates with the facial changes similar to those seen in domesticated animals. The study found that rats selected for tame behavior show some -- though not all -- traits present in domesticated animals and the tame silver foxes. The findings are published in the latest Plos One.

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